Our researches

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    "Electronic Cigarettes Prevalence and Awareness among Jordanian Individuals"


    This paper is published in " Journal of Community Health"

     Publication Date: 10 August 2020

      Publisher: Springer, US

      Researcher: Dr. Hasan Al-Balas, Dept. of Clinical Medical Sciences CMS

      Doi: 10.1007/s10900-020-00904-x




 The general awareness regarding E-smoking is varying from country to other depending on multivariable factors. We try to investigate the prevalence of E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceived Harmfulness, Prevalence, and Associations with Smoking-Cessation Outcomes among different age groups and different sex in Jordanian individuals.

The study element shaped by data gathered from various questionnaire surveys. The questionnaire was of our own design the method of data collection was through online surveys Different applications were used to distributing the questionnaire including; Whatsapp, Facebook, Instagram, other social applications.

The study included 1536 participants. The prevalence of E-smoking is 18% among Jordanian individuals where it is 24.9% in males and 3.5% in females. 47.3% of participants believe that E-smoking has less harmful effects than traditional cigarette smoking while 46.7% believe that E-smoking has the same risk of cigarette smoking. 56% of participants believe the E-smoking can lead to addiction.

E-smoking is considered an emerging modality of smoking with limited data regarding its long term impact regarding its addictive behavior and toxic effect. Awareness program regarding E-smoking is mandatory especially for the nontraditional smoker and young people.



    "NSAIDs: a double edged sword in viral infections"

    This paper has been accepted for publication in" International Journal of Medical Reviews"

     Accept Date: 19 May 2021

     Romany Helmy. Thabet 1, 2, Haya Abdallah Fandi Omeish 3, 5,  Hadeel Fawwaz Anees Abbas ,Angam Ayyoub Ali Najadat 4, 5,  

      Amer Khaled Abed Al-Hafeez Abu Hameed 5 , Hayat Ghaseb Abu Alkhoun 5

      1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid-Jordan

      2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

      3 King Hussein Medical Center

      4 Jordanian royal medical services

      5  Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid-Jordan



NSAIDs are used as analgesics and antipyretics in viral infections, as supportive therapy is the mainstay of treatment. However, their role in the course of the illness is still ambiguous. Several experimental evidences, done on various viral infections about the role of NSAIDs in the course of illness are contradictory; some reported possible antiviral effects and some negated it. NSAIDs inhibit PGs and also have their own actions on immune system and viruses. NSAIDs have stimulatory effects on T lymphocytes, Nitric oxide and interferons, but inhibitory effects on neutrophils, macrophages and antibodies formation.

NSAIDs are used as adjunctive treatment in infectious diseases in which cytokines storm plays a role in the pathogenicity. However, in other studies their effects on immune system were associated with unresolved symptoms and complications. What is worth saying in this entity is the evidence-based studies of antimicrobial activity of NSAIDs. NSAIDs are proven to inhibit the entry of virus into  cells like in ZIKV, as well as inhibit the replication of many viruses as in the inhibitory effect of naproxen on SARS-CoV-2 replication. However, they fail to show any direct antiviral activity in adenovirus infections, and it was found that Ibuprofen increases the shedding of RSV in a bovine model. Indeed there are many contradictory published studies between various viruses, patients’ cases, and whether they are studies performed on animals or humans.

More randomized clinical trials are mandatory to elucidate  exactly whether the use of NSAIDs, during viral infections ,especially COVID-19, modifies  and aborts the course of viral infection by exerting beneficial therapeutic effects or it’s accompanied by delirious hazards and negatively impact health of the patient.